Here is a list (in construction) of some books that I have used and appreciated for my research.

String theory

Polchinski, J. (1998). String theory.
This is one of the main reference texts on string theory. It is as complete as it could be when it was published in 1998. One thing that I particularly like is that it contains a lot of technical computations with the right amount of details, consistent notations throughout and (at least in the recent editions) few (no?) typos, which is truly remarkable.

Becker, K., Becker, M., & Schwarz, J. H. (2006). String theory and M-theory: A modern introduction.
This is a good complement to Polchinski's book, which includes more modern topics. The presentation is lighter, with less computations and more text. It contains solved exercises, which is quite rare for a textbook at this level.

Supersymmetry and supergravity

Terning, J. (2006). Modern supersymmetry: Dynamics and duality. Oxford University Press.
This is a modern textbook (as the title says), which starts from the very beginning of supersymmetry (supersymmetric actions, MSSM) and takes the reader to recent developments (dualities, holomorphy, Seiberg-Witten theory, ...). All this is done quite efficiently, so I would recomment this book as a first approach to supersymmetry aimed at theoretical physicists. Supergravity is also mentioned, but not in great detail.

Freedman, D. Z., & Van Proeyen, A. (2012). Supergravity.
This is a standard introduction to supergravity, with all the details worked out. I consider it as the bible of supergravity.